✅ Smoking is associated with leukocytosis.
✅ As a general rule the increase in white blood cell count is modest (<20%), with the total WBC count rarely exceeding 20 x 109/L.
✅ All white blood cell (WBC) subtypes are affected, but the predominant effect is on neutrophils.
✅ There is a dose response such that WBC counts are higher in heavy vs. lighter smokers.
✅ Smoking cessation leads to a time-dependent reversal of leukocytosis, though there is a residual effect even years after stopping.
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